History of Heroin

The current opioid crisis has brought new attention to heroin and other derivatives of the opium poppy plant. You have probably heard that overdoses using heroin and similar prescription drugs, such as fentanyl, are rising the in the US to epidemic levels. However, you may not be familiar with the country’s history with heroin.

Types of Heroin

Heroin is a Schedule 1 narcotic that is synthesized from opium, and it is considered to be highly addictive and hazardous to human health. Some common versions of the drug look like white powder, brown powder, or a black sticky slime, but they are better known by their street names, such as black tar, china white, horse, and smack. Not only are their appearance different, so is their origin:

  • White Heroin A white powdery form that easily dissolves in water and usually comes from Southeast Asia. This version is known to be highly acidic.
  • Light Brown Heroin – Sometimes better described as “off-white,” this type of heroin comes from Columbia in a powder form that is also easy to dissolve in water.
  • Brown Heroin – This version of heroin is more crude and is not as powdery as white heroin, although it still comes from Southeast Asia. Because of its chemical properties, it does not dissolve well in water and does not respond to heat.
  • Black Heroin – Most typically produced in Mexico, this form of heroin is a solid and contains more impurities than the other types. It can be ingested by applying heat, turning it into a liquid or a vapor.

The most common method of consuming heroin in the United States is by inhaling it in a powder form, although other cultures tend to prefer smoking it.

Presence in the United States

Heroin was invented in 1874, but cultures have been using the poppy plant for thousands of years. Mesopotamians and Sumerians are thought to have been some of the first civilizations to use cultivate and use opiates, and from there, the tradition spread to other cultures, including the Greeks, Persians, and Indians.

During the late 1700s, the British Empire used opium plants as trade currency for Chinese tea. It wasn’t until the 1800s that doctors became concerned about the addictive properties of opium, as millions of Chinese began to abuse the substance. As a result, the First and Second Opium Wars occurred in China, but opium imports resumed in 1856.

Not much later, in 1874, Charles Wright first synthesized heroin from morphine, and it became commercially available in 1898 when Bayer began to recommend the drug as a cough suppressant and pain reliever. The goal was to replace morphine with a less addictive substance, but heroin was soon discovered to be even worse, and the substance was outlawed under the Heroin Act of 1924. Since then, the use of heroin has gone underground with criminal enterprises still smuggling the drug into the United States borders. Currently, heroin addiction is responsible for over 27,000 deaths each year, nearly a 500% increase since 1999.

Selling mineral rights

Do you live on a property rich in minerals, oil or gas? If so, you might consider selling your mineral rights. Mineral rights give a person the authority to access and mine all of the minerals below the surface of a property. According to The Mineral Auction, selling your rights is a major decision, and you should understand all of your options for making a profit off of these rights.

The two modes of making an income from mineral rights are selling or leasing these rights. The main difference lies in whether or not you want an immediate payout or you’re willing to play the long game by hoping to make more money from developing the land. In order to get the best deal possible, The Mineral Auction recommends hiring a professional broker to represent you.

There are a number of reasons why someone might put their mineral rights up for sale. Some people want to have more liquidity while others look to the favorable tax savings. Regardless of your reason for leasing or selling your mineral rights, brokerages like The Mineral Auction are available to help you get the best price from your mineral rights without a lot of effort.

In recent news, a North Dakota family is ecstatic about the North Dakota Supreme Court ruling that said the North Dakota Board of University and School Lands did not have mineral rights to the Wilkinson family land. The Wilkinson family argued that North Dakota took their “mineral rights from property acquired by the federal government for the construction of the Garrison Dam” and had documentation going back more than 80 years to prove that the state did not own these rights. Furthermore, the Supreme Court upheld recent legislation clarifying who has mineral rights under a man-made lake.

Attorney General Wayne Stenehjem explains that “The Supreme Court’s decision is not wholly unexpected, given that the Legislature took action to require a review survey of the historical ordinary high water mark of the Missouri River bed channel by the Department of Mineral Resources while this case was still before the court.”

Unfortunately, the family spent around $400,000 on legal costs to fight the state and two oil companies. Jon Patch, a Wilkinson grandson, explains that this ruling supports private property rights.

As the Director of the Department of Mineral Resources Lynn Helms explains, “The Wilkinson case illustrates how complex these cases are and why the Legislature decided to get involved.”

This Supreme Court decision also affected Edward P. Lynch, a neighbor of the Wilkinsons. While the Supreme Court did agree that the state had made “an unconstitutional land grab,” the upper court did rule that the state would have to compensate both the Lynchs and Wilkinsons for their mineral rights.

Mineral rights are an excellent asset to have. If you have mineral rights, you have the option of either selling or leasing them to oil and gas companies for further development. The recent North Dakota Supreme Court ruling upheld private property rights and had been watched by a number of oil and gas companies as well as states.

A Singular Mistake does not Justify a Harsh, Lasting Punishment

Drunk-driving remains to be one of the major causes of car accidents in the United States, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which also says that in 2012, more than 10,000 people died in alcohol-impaired driving crashes – one every 51 minutes.. However, despite the grave danger associated with alcohol-impaired driving and this being a major traffic offense in all 50 states, millions of drivers continue to sit behind the wheel even when intoxicated.

The blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level limit in all U.S. states is 0.08%. This is usually reached after consuming four regular bottles of beer within an hour. A driver who registers a 0.08% BAC level will be considered alcohol-impaired and charged with DUI (in some states, the charge is DWI if the BAC level is higher than 0.08%).

Impairment, which is the effect of alcohol and the real cause of danger, is the primary reason why impaired driving is prohibited under both federal and state laws. While this may be a legally acceptable reason to apprehend and charge violators, the overzealousness of some enforcers, however, has, in a number of instances, resulted to the unreasonable arrest of many individuals. Though punishments for DUI vary from one state to another, these are nevertheless harsh in order to discourage anyone from committing this grave offense.

Some states punish DUI offenders by suspending their license and driving privileges, probation and fines. Others include community service, imprisonment, and the installation of an ignition interlock device in offenders’ vehicles (an ignition interlock device is a device designed to analyze a driver’s breath; it automatically disables a car’s ignition upon detection of alcohol). Installation of an ignition interlock device is done in 45 states. These states allow those convicted of DUI to continue driving on the condition that the device is installed in their vehicle.

As explained by the law firm Truslow & Truslow, being accused of DUI is a serious and sometimes frightening matter. A DUI conviction can impact your job, your finances, and your family. It is imperative that your charge is resolved favorably, efficiently, and effectively to protect your livelihood. If handled improperly, a DUI charge can turn a lapse in judgment or an error in law-enforcement into a life-altering conviction.

People deserve an opportunity to show that a singular mistake does not justify a harsh, lasting punishment. Thus, if you have been charged with a DUI, it is important that you act quickly to protect your freedom.


Advantages of an Uncontested Divorce

Divorce can either be contested or uncontested. Contested divorce is for those who have issues with the divorce itself or its terms, such as child custody, child support, spousal support, and division of assets and liabilities. Uncontested divorce is for those who agree on the divorce itself and its terms.

Contesting a divorce may be necessary, as it can affect your life in terms of spousal relationship, children relationship, acquired assets, and other financial aspects. But sometimes, taking an uncontested divorce is the better choice because of its advantages.

Lower Costs

Contested divorce involves a lot of legalities, such as the maintenance and division of properties and other liabilities. For this reason, getting a lawyer and paying the appropriate fees is not out of the question. Uncontested divorce, on the other hand, can be successfully done even without the help of attorneys, minimizing your financial costs.

Faster Processes

Since uncontested divorce basically involves agreeing parties, the legal process takes less paperwork, and therefore, less time to accomplish and approve. There are also instances where a court proceeding is not required, again saving you from the financial costs of courts and lost time at work. You cannot say the same regarding contested divorce, as the disagreements require settlements and more paperwork.

Less Errors

Less paperwork means less legal matters to attend to and fewer chances of committing a mistake. Again, this makes the entire process cheaper and faster, not to mention that it prevents multiple meetings with the opposing party, which could be beneficial in the long run.

Less Hard Feelings

One of the most overlooked benefits of uncontested divorce is the fact that it often ends up with less hard feelings between the parties involved, because of the lack of disagreements in assets and liabilities. Contested divorces can be emotionally taxing. Couples may feel the need to “win” the divorce as an act of anger or revenge, resulting into lengthy and expensive proceedings.

Common Playground Injuries

The playground is a place of recreation, but sometimes, it may also be a place for accidents and injuries, especially because of the physical demands of playground equipment and how children can be very careless, energetic, and fragile.

Playground accidents may be subject to legal action, particularly those that involve defective equipment, unsafe materials, and unsecured spots.

But many playground injuries are not because of defects in the premises, but because of carelessness and recklessness on the side of the parent, child, or caregiver. Below are the common injuries you should look out for in playgrounds.


This is probably one of the worst injuries a child can sustain in a playground. This mostly occurs when the gaps between a moving equipment catch a body part of a child. The most vulnerable body parts include the fingers and toes, and at worst, the arms and legs.

Broken bones

Children don’t have fully developed bones yet, so they may be vulnerable to fractures, especially because of heavy impact, like when they fall from a high spot in the playground, or collide with playground equipment or other children.


If a child hits his head on a hard surface, he may experience a mild traumatic brain injury or a concussion. Signs of concussion include confusion, disorientation, and dizziness.


Children may suffer cuts on the playground, particularly because of their speed and how it can affect the swiftness of a surface scratching to their skin. For minor cuts, it is best to clean the area with water first and put a band-aid on it. For worse scenarios like deep abrasions and large wounds, you may need to call professional help for stitching and treatment.


Sprains happen when the ligaments that connect the bones experience some kind of damage. They mostly happen because of direct impacts and falls. The most common body parts that suffer from sprains include the ankles, knees, and wrists.

The best way to avoid injuries in playgrounds is to make sure that the child is only using the equipment appropriate for his or her age and give your full attention to help him or her stay away from dangerous conditions and scenarios.